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Design a system like Amazon - System design interview

Designing a system like Amazon involves creating a highly scalable e-commerce platform that can handle millions of products, transactions, user interactions, and logistics operations. Below is a detailed system design using Prisma for database modeling, Express.js for API routes, and a recommended tech stack:

Tech Stack

System Components

  1. Client Applications (Web, Mobile, Desktop):

    • Various clients for browsing products, placing orders, managing accounts, etc.
  2. Express.js Backend

    • Prisma Models:

      // schema.prisma
      datasource db {
        provider = "postgresql"
        url      = env("DATABASE_URL")
      generator client {
        provider = "prisma-client-js"
      model User {
        id       Int      @id @default(autoincrement())
        username String   @unique
        email    String?  @unique
        password String
        orders   Order[]
        cart     Cart?
      model Product {
        id          Int      @id @default(autoincrement())
        name        String
        description String?
        price       Float
        imageUrl    String?
        category    String
        inventory   Int
      model Order {
        id          Int       @id @default(autoincrement())
        userId      Int
        user        User      @relation(fields: [userId], references: [id])
        products    Product[]
        totalPrice  Float
        status      String    // pending, shipped, delivered, cancelled, etc.
        createdAt   DateTime  @default(now())
        updatedAt   DateTime  @updatedAt
      model Cart {
        id          Int       @id @default(autoincrement())
        userId      Int
        user        User      @relation(fields: [userId], references: [id])
        products    Product[] @relation("CartProducts", references: [id])
    • Express API Routes:

      // server.js
      const express = require('express');
      const { PrismaClient } = require('@prisma/client');
      const prisma = new PrismaClient();
      const app = express();
      // Endpoint for fetching all products
      app.get('/products', async (req, res) => {
        try {
          const products = await prisma.product.findMany();
        } catch (error) {
          res.status(500).json({ error: 'Failed to fetch products' });
      // Endpoint for creating a new order
      app.post('/orders', async (req, res) => {
        const { userId, productIds } = req.body;
        try {
          // Fetch products from IDs
          const products = await prisma.product.findMany({
            where: {
              id: { in: productIds },
          // Calculate total price
          const totalPrice = products.reduce((acc, curr) => acc + curr.price, 0);
          // Create order
          const order = await prisma.order.create({
            data: {
              userId: parseInt(userId),
              products: { connect: productIds.map(id => ({ id: parseInt(id) })) },
              status: 'pending',
        } catch (error) {
          res.status(500).json({ error: 'Failed to create order' });
      const PORT = process.env.PORT || 3000;
      app.listen(PORT, () => {
        console.log(`Server is running on http://localhost:${PORT}`);
  3. Database Layer

    • PostgreSQL for user data (profiles, orders), product details, and relational data.
    • Elasticsearch for product search indexing and fast retrieval.
  4. Caching

    • Redis: Caches frequently accessed data such as product details and user sessions to improve response times.
  5. Message Broker

    • RabbitMQ: Manages asynchronous tasks such as order processing, email notifications, and inventory updates.
  6. Storage

    • Amazon S3: Stores product images and media securely with high availability and durability.
  7. Authentication

    • OAuth: Used for user authentication and authorization to access Amazon services securely.
  8. Monitoring and Analytics

    • Prometheus and Grafana: Monitor system health, performance metrics, and usage statistics to optimize performance and troubleshoot issues.

Scalability and Fault Tolerance


Published on: Jul 10, 2024, 01:12 AM  


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