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How bitcoin works

Bitcoin operates on a decentralized peer-to-peer network, utilizing blockchain technology to enable secure and transparent transactions without the need for intermediaries like banks. Here’s a simplified explanation of how Bitcoin works:

1. Blockchain and Transactions

  1. Transactions:

    • Users initiate transactions by sending bitcoins from one wallet address to another.
    • Each transaction includes inputs (previous transactions used as inputs) and outputs (recipient addresses and amounts).
  2. Block Formation:

    • Transactions are collected into blocks by miners.
    • Miners verify the validity of transactions (e.g., ensuring the sender has sufficient funds) and group them into a block.
  3. Block Header:

    • Each block includes a header containing metadata such as the timestamp, nonce (random number), and reference to the previous block's hash.

2. Consensus Mechanism

  1. Proof of Work (PoW):

    • Miners compete to solve a cryptographic puzzle (hash function) by finding a nonce that, when combined with the block's data, produces a hash with specific criteria (target difficulty).
    • This process requires significant computational power and is known as mining.
  2. Difficulty Adjustment:

    • Bitcoin adjusts the mining difficulty periodically to maintain an average block creation time of approximately 10 minutes, regardless of network hash rate fluctuations.

3. Blockchain Security

  1. Blockchain Integrity:

    • Once a miner finds a valid nonce and solves the puzzle, the block is propagated to the network.
    • Other nodes verify the block's validity and add it to their own copy of the blockchain.
  2. Chain of Blocks:

    • Each new block contains a reference (hash) to the previous block, creating a chain of blocks that grows sequentially.
    • Altering any block in the chain would require re-mining subsequent blocks, making the blockchain resistant to tampering (immutable).

4. Transaction Verification

  1. Nodes and Wallets:

    • Nodes maintain a full copy of the blockchain and verify transactions independently.
    • Wallets (software or hardware) generate and manage cryptographic keys for securely signing transactions and accessing funds.
  2. Network Consensus:

    • Bitcoin operates on a decentralized network of nodes, with each node following the same consensus rules.
    • Consensus ensures that all transactions are validated and agreed upon by the network before being recorded on the blockchain.

5. Incentives and Rewards

  1. Mining Rewards:
    • Miners are rewarded with newly minted bitcoins and transaction fees for successfully mining a block.
    • This incentivizes miners to contribute computing power to secure the network and process transactions.
Published on: Jul 08, 2024, 11:59 PM  


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