Internal and External commands in Windows command prompt

There are 2 types of commands in Windows command prompt.

  1. Internal
  2. External

Internal commands

These commands are called as internal because binary file for such commands does not exist. These commands are always loaded into memory when system is booted.

Here is the list of some of the Internal Commands.

  1. CD, COPY, DEL, DIR, MD, PATH, REN, RD
  2. CLS, ECHO, EXIT, TYPE
  3. DATE, TIME
  4. BREAK, CALL, CHCP, FOR, GOTO, IF, PAUSE, PROMPT, REM
  5. SET, SHIFT, VER, VERIFY, VOL

External commands

These commands are called as external commands because there is binary file for such commands on hard disk. These commands are actually exe files that reside on hard disk. (Usually in %WinDir%\System32). External commands usually have extensions like .exe, .bat, .com

Here is the list of some of the popular External Commands

  1. ATTRIB.EXE, BACKUP.EXE, CHKDSK.EXE
  2. COMMAND.COM, COMP.EXE, DOSKEY.COM, EXE2BIN.EXE, FDISK.EXE
  3. HELP.EXE, JOIN.EXE, MORE.COM, PRINT.EXE
  4. RECOVER.EXE, REPLACE.EXE, RESTORE.EXE
  5. SORT.EXE, SUBST.EXE, SYS.COM, TREE.COM, XCOPY.EXE

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